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a: arpf authorized_key backup basename beep brcfg
chgrp chmod chown chroot chvt cip clear
clock clr cmp connect control cp cp-rf
crontab date dd df dir dirname dmesg
dyndns echo edit email false find fpenguin
free fromdos grep gunzip gzip hardinfo hostname
htpasswd ifconfig ile insmod ipautofw ipcalc ipportfw
ispstats kill length ll ln loadkmap logger
login ls lsmod math minicom mkdir mknod
mkswap more mount mv netinfo nice nslookup
ntpdate pidof ping pkg play printout ps
pwd random rasstats report rm rmmod route
runchk sed setserial sh sleep snarf star
stty sync sysedit sysinfo tar tclock telnet
todos touch traceroute true tty udosctl umount
umssetup umssync uname uptime useradd userdel useredit
userlist usleep utils wc which zcat  

= agetty arpmon block_device chat crond daemon
dhcpcd dhcpcd-fld dhcpcd.update dhcpd diald dnsmasq dropbear
dropbearconvert dropbearkey edt fork freetime halt init
ipfwadm ipfwd isapnp killall klogd load logrotate
lpd mgetty mini_sendmail miterm mode oidentd passwd
pnpdump pppd pppmon pppoe pptp pptp_callmgr psh
pure-ftpd reboot remotelog rmlogs savelogs scp serverchk
servermon setleds setspeed setup sftpserver shapecfg smtpclient
ssh swapoff swapon synctime syslogd thttpd tleds
top tsaver update  

Command: =
Location: /sbin
Type: Script
Usage: = [$?/1/0] ["text-success"] ["text-failure"]
Purpose: This command is used to print "Done" or "XXXX" inside of startup scripts.

When used in the above usage example a successful exit will print the first text and a failure will print the second text.
$? Returns the exit code of the preceding process.
0 Always print a green Done (default).
1 Always show a failure.

Command: a:
Location: /bin
Type: Script
Usage: a: [/dev/fdN] [/dev/fdNu1680]
Purpose: Mounts or UnMounts a floppy disk.
N Actual number of the device. For standard floppies on fd0, no other arguments are needed and the floppy will always be mounted to /mnt/fd.

Command: agetty
Location: /sbin
Type: Binary
Usage: agetty [-hiLmw] [-l login_program] [-t timeout] [-I initstring] baud_rate,... line [termtype]
agetty [-hiLmw] [-l login_program] [-t timeout] [-I initstring] line baud_rate,... [termtype]
Purpose: The Linux version of getty. Set terminal type, modes, speed, and line discipline. agetty is invoked by init, which ultimately connects a user with the Linux system.
-h Specify hardware, not software, flow control.
-i Suppress printing of /etc/issue before printing the login prompt.
-I STRING Specify STRING to be sent to the tty or modem.
-L Do not require carrier detect; operate locally only. Use this when connecting terminals.
-l PROGRAM Specify the use of PROGRAM instead of /bin/login.
-m Attempt to guess the appropriate baud rate.
-t TIME Specify that agetty should exit if there is no response to the login prompt in TIME seconds.
-w Wait for carriage return or linefeed before sending login prompt. Use when sending an initialization string.
baud_rate A comma-separated list of rates through which agetty will step.

Command: arpf
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: arpf [-i IF] [-s]
Purpose: This will display the IP and MAC addresses of all clients currently connected to the specified network interface.
-i IF Query network interface IF (Default is eth0).
-s Short output format.

Command: arpmon
Location: /sbin
Type: Script
Usage: None.
Purpose: This script is used by the system to monitor the network to see what machines are currently online. Machines that are online then have their MAC addresses written to a special file the rest of the system can use to control other security and access options.
Option(s): None.

Command: authorized_key
Location: /bin
Type: Script
Usage: authorized_key <users_home_directory>
Purpose: The authorized_keys file allows users to login using SSH and not have to use a password.
Option(s): None.

Command: backup
Location: /bin
Type: Script
Usage: backup
Purpose: This command will copy the primary configuration files from FREESCO running on a hard drive install or on a read-only-once floppy install to a default pre-made FREESCO floppy. Currently it only operates with /dev/fd0.
Option(s): None.

Command: basename
Location: /bin
Type: Script
Usage: basename [dir]name.extension [.extension]
Purpose: This script takes any file and strips all other components from it such as the directory and any extension that you specify as the second argument.
Option(s): None.

Command: beep
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: beep [-f freq] [-l length] [-r reps] [-d delay] [-D delay] [-s] [-c]
beep [-h ¦ --help]
beep [-v ¦ -V ¦ --version]
Purpose: Produces a tone from the speaker. Used by the "play" script.
-c Beep after each char of input from stdin, echo char to stdout.
-d delay Delay in ms.
-D delay Similar to -d, but delay after last repetition as well.
-f freq Frequency in Hz.
Show help.
-l length Tone length in ms.
-n Allows you to break the command line up into specifying multiple beeps.
Each time this option is used, beep starts treating all further arguments as though they were for a new beep.
-r reps Repetitions.
-s Beep after each line of input from stdin, echo line to stdout.
Show version.

Command: block_device
Location: /sbin
Type: Binary
Usage: block_device FILE
Purpose: Returns the block device where a file or directory resides.
Option(s): None.

Command: brcfg
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: brcfg -enable
Purpose: This binary should NOT be used directly from the command line and it is included into FREESCO's internal operations.
Option(s): None.

Command: chat
Location: /sbin
Type: Binary
Usage: chat [-e] [-E] [-v] [-V] [-t TIMEOUT] [-r REPORT_FILE] [-T PHONE_NUMBER] [-U PHONE_NUMBER2] {-f CHAT_FILE ¦ Chat_Script}
Purpose: The chat binary manages dialing a connection and password negotiation before a PPP connection is made.
-e Start with the echo option turned on.
-E Enables environment variable substituion within chat scripts using the standard $xxx syntax.
-f CHAT_FILE Read the chat script from the chat file (mutually exclusive with chat script parameters).
-r REPORT_FILE Set the file for output of the report strings. If you use the keyword REPORT, the resulting strings are written to this file. If this option is not used and you still use REPORT keywords, the stderr file is used for the report strings.
-T PHONE_NUMBER Pass in an arbitary string, usually a phone number, that will be substituted for the T substitution metacharacter in a send string.
-t TIMEOUT Set the timeout for the expected string to be received. If the string is not received within the time limit then the reply string is not sent.
-U PHONE_NUMBER2 Pass in a second string, usually a phone number, that will be substituted for the U substitution metacharacter in a send string. This is useful when dialing an ISDN terminal adapter that requires two numbers.
-v Request that the chat script be executed in a SYSLOG verbose mode.
-V Request that the chat script be executed in a stderr verbose mode.
Chat_Script If the script is not specified in a file with the -f option then the script is included as parameters to the chat program.

Command: chgrp
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: chgrp [OPTION]... GROUP FILE...
Purpose: Change the group membership of each FILE to GROUP.
-R Recursive.

Command: chmod
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: chmod [-R] MODE[,MODE]... FILE...
Purpose: Change file access permissions.
-R Recursive.
MODE One or more of the letters ugoa, one of the symbols +-= and one or more of the letters rwxst.

Command: chown
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: chown [ -Rh ]... OWNER[<.¦:>[GROUP]] FILE...
Purpose: Change the owner and/or group of each FILE to OWNER and/or GROUP.
-h Do not dereference symbolic links.
-R Recursive.

Command: chroot
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: chroot NEWROOT [COMMAND...]
Purpose: Run COMMAND with root directory set to NEWROOT.
Option(s): None.

Command: chvt
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: chvt N
Purpose: Changes the foreground virtual terminal to /dev/ttyN.
Option(s): None.

Command: cip
Location: /bin
Type: Script
Usage: cip [DEV]
Purpose: Displays a spinning cursor on DEV to indicate 'Computing In Progress'. If DEV is not specified, cip will use the current console. Use CTRL+c to terminate.
Option(s): None.

Command: clear
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: clear
Purpose: Clears the current display of all text.
Option(s): None.

Command: clock
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: clock [-u] -r¦w¦s¦a
Purpose: Manipulate the CMOS clock.
-a Get system time and adjust CMOS clock.
-r Read and print CMOS clock.
-s Set system time from CMOS clock.
-u CMOS clock is in universal time.
-w Write CMOS clock from system time.

Command: clr
Location: /bin
Type: Script
Usage: clr
Purpose: Clear the screen. This is a shortcut to the binary "clear".
Option(s): None.

Command: cmp
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: cmp [-s] FILE1 [FILE2]
Purpose: Compare files.
-s Silent mode - do not print.

Command: connect
Location: /bin
Type: Script
Usage: connect
Purpose: Used to establish a modem connection to the default ISP.
Option(s): None.

Command: control
Location: /bin
Type: Script
Usage: control [Command]
Purpose: Controls the current state of the dial-up daemon.
block Block outgoing calls. Also brings the link down.
debug Set the diald debug flags. See diald man page for values.
delay-quit Terminate diald as the link next goes idle.
down Force the link down.
force Bring up the link continuously.
queue Force diald to print the contents of the filter queue to the syslog.
quit Force the link down and exit diald.
reset Force diald to reread its configuration. If the configuration is incorrect, diald will terminate with an error condition.
unblock Allow outgoing calls.
unforce Resume normal link state.
up Force the link up.

Command: cp
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Purpose: Copies SOURCE to DEST, or multiple SOURCEs) to DIRECTORY.
-a Same as -dpR.
-d Preserves links.
-f Force <implied; ignored> - always set
-p Preserves file attributes if possible.
-R Recursive.

Command: cp-rf
Location: /bin
Type: Script
Usage: cp-rf /DIR1 /DIR2
Purpose: Copies recursively from DIR1 to DIR2.
Option(s): None.

Command: crond
Location: /sbin
Type: Binary
Usage: crond -d[#] [-l#] [-f] [-b] [-c DIR]
Purpose: Execute commands at scheduled times.
-b Run crond in the background (default unless -d specified).
-c DIR Specify directory containing crontab files.
-d[#] Set debugging level (default is 0). If no level is specified with -d option, default is 1. This option also sets the logging level to 0 and causes crond to run in the foreground.
-f Run crond in the foreground.
-l# Set logging level (default is 8).

Command: crontab
Location: /bin
Type: Script
Usage: crontab [-e]
crontab [-l]
Purpose: View or edit your current crontab file.
-e Edits the crontab entries.
-l Lists all current crontab entries.

Command: daemon
Location: /sbin
Type: Script
Usage: daemon PROGRAM
Purpose: Runs PROGRAM in an endless loop that will continue to restart even if the program is killed.
Option(s): None.

Command: date
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: /bin/date [OPTION]... [+FORMAT]
/bin/date [OPTION] [MMDDhhmm[[CC]YY][.ss]]

NOTE: It is important to use the FULL PATH to this binary because there is also a built-in "date" command that does not have the below options available.
Purpose: Display the current time in the given FORMAT, or set the system date.
FORMAT controls the output. Interpreted sequences (listed under options) begin with the % character.
By default, date pads numeric fields with zeroes. GNU date recognizes the following modifiers between `%' and a numeric directive:
`-' (hyphen) do not pad the field
`_' (underscore) pad the field with spaces.
%% A literal %
%a Locale's abbreviated weekday name (Sun..Sat)
%A Locale's full weekday name, variable length (Sunday..Saturday)
%b Locale's abbreviated month name (Jan..Dec)
%B Locale's full month name, variable length (January..December)
%c Locale's date and time (Sat Nov 04 12:02:33 EST 1989)
%d Day of month (01..31)
%D Date (mm/dd/yy)
%e Day of month, blank padded ( 1..31)
%h Same as %b
%H Hour (00..23)
%I Hour (01..12)
%j Day of year (001..366)
%k Hour, blank padded ( 0..23)
%l Hour, blank padded ( 1..12)
%m Month (01..12)
%M Minute (00..59)
%n A newline
%p Locale's AM or PM
%r Time, 12-hour (hh:mm:ss [AP]M)
%s Seconds since 00:00:00, Jan 1, 1970 (a GNU extension)
%S Second (00..61)
%t A horizontal tab
%T Time, 24-hour (hh:mm:ss)
%U Week number of year with Sunday as first day of week (00..53)
%V Week number of year with Monday as first day of week (01..52)
%w Day of week (0..6); 0 represents Sunday
%W Week number of year with Monday as first day of week (00..53)
%x Locale's date representation (mm/dd/yy)
%X Locale's time representation (%H:%M:%S)
%y Last two digits of year (00..99) %Y year (1970...)
%z RFC-822 style numeric timezone (-0500) (a nonstandard extension)
%Z Time zone (e.g., EDT), or nothing if no time zone is determinable
Display time described by STRING, not `now'
Like --date, once for each line of DATEFILE.
Display the last modification time of FILE.
Output RFC-822 compliant date string.
Set time described by STRING.
Print or set Coordinated Universal Time.

Command: dd
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: dd [if=FILE] [of=FILE] [bs=N] [count=N] [skip=N] [seek=N] [conv=notrunc¦noerror¦sync]
Purpose: Copy a file, converting and formatting according to options.
Numbers may be suffixed by c <x1>, w <x2>, b <x512>, kD <x1000>, k <x1024>, MD <x1000000>, M <x1048576>, GD <x1000000000> or G <x1073741824>.
bs=N Block Size; Read and write N bytes at a time.
conv=noerror Continue after read errors.
conv=notrunc Don't truncate output file.
conv=sync Pad blocks with zeros.
count=N Copy only N input blocks.
if=FILE Input File; Read from FILE instead of stdin.
of=FILE Output File; Write to FILE instead of stdout.
seek=N Skip N output blocks.
skip=N Skip N input blocks.

Command: df
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: df [-hmk] [FILESYSTEM ...]
Purpose: Print the filesystem space used and space available.
-h Print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K, 243M, 2G).
-k Print sizes in kilobytes(default).
-m Print sizes in megabytes.

Command: dhcpcd
Location: /sbin
Type: Binary

INTERFACE Specifies the network interface name (eth0, eth1, etc.).
Purpose: DHCP client for ISP DHCP connections.
-B Requests broadcast response from DHCP server.
-C Forces dhcpcd to calculate checksum on received packets.
-c FILENAME Execute FILENAME script instead of the default script every time it configures or brings down the interface.
-d Sets debugging output.
-D Forces dhcpcd to set domainname of the host to the domainname option supplied by DHCP server.
-G [GATEWAY] Prevents dhcpcd from installing default routes provided by DHCP server. If optional gateway ip address parameter is supplied then use it for default route.
-H Forces dhcpcd to set hostname of the host to the hostname option supplied by DHCP server. By default dhcpcd will NOT set hostname of the host to the hostname option received from DHCP server.
-h HOSTNAME Specifies a string used for the hostname option field when dhcpcd sends DHCP messages.
-I CLIENT_ID Specifies the client identifier string.
-i VENDOR_ID Specifies the vendor class identifier string.
-k Sends SIGHUP signal to the dhcpcd process that is currently running.
-L CONFIG_DIR Use CONFIG_DIR directory instead of default /etc/dhcpc to store configuration information.
-l LEASETIME Specifies (in seconds) the recommended lease time to the server. (Note that the server can override this value if it sees fit).
-n Sends SIGALRM signal to the dhcpcd process that is currently running which forces dhcpcd to try to renew the lease. If dhcpcd is not running, the flag is ignored and dhcpcd follows the normal startup procedure.
-N Prevents dhcpcd from replacing existing /etc/ntp.conf file.
-r Makes dhcpcd RFC1541 (obsolete) compliant. dhcpcd is RFC2131 compliant unless this option is specified.
-R Prevents dhcpcd from replacing existing /etc/resolv.conf file.
-S Forces dhcpcd to send second DHCP_DISCOVER message even after receiving DHCP_OFFER on the first one. Some DHCP servers expect the client to send second DHCP_DISCOVER message before replying on DHCP_REQUEST.
-s [IPADDR] Sends DHCP_INFORM message to DHCP server using IPADDR.
-T This option is used primarily for testing DHCP servers, for obtaining multiple IP addresses for the same dummy interface, and/or configuring virtual interfaces in conjunction with -L CONFIG_DIR and -I CLIENT_ID options.
-t TIMEOUT Specifies (in seconds ) for how long dhcpcd will try to get an IP address. The default is 60 seconds.
-w WIN_SIZE Specifies the window size for the gateway route. Default = 32768.
-Y Prevents dhcpcd from replacing existing /etc/yp.conf file. Domainname is not updated unless -D is specified.

Command: dhcpcd-fld
Location: /sbin
Type: Script
Usage: None.
Purpose: This script is used by the system when the external DHCP lease from an ISP fails.
Option(s): None.

Command: dhcpcd.update
Location: /sbin
Type: Script
Usage: None.
Purpose: This script is used by dhcpcd to update the system when a new lease is acquired.
Option(s): None.

Command: dhcpd
Location: /sbin
Type: Binary
Usage: dhcpd [-p PORT] [-d] [-f] [-cf CONFIG-FILE] [-lf LEASE-FILE] [-pf PID-FILE] [if0 [...ifN]]
Purpose: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol server daemon.
-cf CONFIG-FILE Use configuration file CONFIG-FILE.
-d Debug mode. Logs to standard out instead of syslog.
-f Run in foreground instead of as a daemon.
-lf LEASE-FILE Use lease file LEASE-FILE.
-p PORT Use alternate listen port PORT; default is port 67 and the broadcast port one higher at 68.

Command: diald
Location: /sbin
Type: Binary
Usage: diald [modem-device1] [modem-device2 ...] [options...] [-- [pppd options...]]
Purpose: Monitor and control dialup connections.
-daemon Don't run in daemon mode.
-f FILE,
-file FILE,
include FILE
Read the file FILE for additional commands.
-m MODE,
mode MODE
Set the operation mode to MODE.
Valid choices are:
slip - SLIP mode.
cslip - Compressed SLIP mode.
slip6 - 6 BIT SLIP mode.
cslip6 - Compressed 6 BIT SLIP mode.
aslip - Adaptive SLIP mode.
ppp - PPP mode.
dev - Ethernet device mode.
-pidstring Write lock files in binary format.
-reroute This command asks diald to forward packets from the proxy link to the real link, rather than change the system routes to point to the real route.
accept <prot-rule> <time> <pack-rule> Define a packet matching rule to control the link.
Packets that match an accept rule will cause the link to come up and stay up for at least <time> seconds.
The <prot-rule> must refer to a protocol rule defined by a previous prule statement.
The value <time> must be a non negative integer.
accounting-log FILE Name the file that diald should append accounting information to.
addroute FILE The designated script or executable is called by diald once it has established the proxy device.
The script is passed five arguments: <iface> <netmask> <local-ip> <remote-ip> <metric>.
bringup <prot-rule> <time> <pack-rule> Define a packet matching rule to control the link.
Packets that match a bringup rule will cause attempts to bring the link up for at least <time> seconds. These rules are ignored if the link is currently up.
The parameters are exactly as described for the accept command.
Tells diald Do/Don't dispose of packets in a first in first out order if it runs out of room on the packet buffer while waiting for a link to come up.
Tells diald Do/Don't buffer packets while waiting for a link to come up.
buffer-timeout NN Set the timeout (in seconds) for throwing away packets in the buffer.
buffer_size NN Sets the size of the buffer for saving packets while waiting for a link to come up.
connect FILE Use the executable or shell script FILE to set up the serial line.
connect-timeout NN Set the maximum amount of time to wait for the connect script to complete (in seconds).
crtscts Use the hardware flow control lines (RTS and CTS) to control the serial line.
debug MASK Set the debugging mask. The mask is the binary OR of the following hex value flags:
0x0001 FILTER_MATCH - dump information showing which packets are matched by which filtering rule.
0x0004 PROXYARP - dump information on the proxyarp setup.
0x0008 VERBOSE - dump details on various normal operations.
0x0010 STATE_CONTROL - output changes in the finite state control for the link status.
0x0020 TICK - dump a heartbeat message every second.
0x0040 CONNECTION_QUEUE - dump information detailing every change to the connection queue.
A value of 0 turns off debugging output (default).
defaultroute Tell diald to set up a default route to the SLIP link.
delroute FILE The designated script or executable is called by diald just before it deletes the proxy device (when diald is about to terminate).
The script receives the same arguments as the addroute script.
device DEV Add the device DEV to the list of devices that can be used for the outgoing connection. For SLIP and PPP modes these should be serial devices. For the "dev" mode this should be the name of an Ethernet device.
dial-fail-limit NN Sets the maximum number of consecutive failed connection attempts diald will allow.
died-retry-count NN Set the maximum number of times diald should attempt to restore a connection that was severed before it should fall back and wait for more network traffic.
disconnect FILE Use the executable or shell script FILE to shut down serial line.
disconnect-timeout NN Set the maximum amount of time to wait for the disconnect script to complete (in seconds).
down The down rule forces the link to be down at all times, regardless of the packet filtering that is in force.
dslip-mode MODE Set the interpretation of dynamic address information for SLIP mode.
The possible settings are: bootp, remote, local, remote-local, and local-remote.
dynamic Dynamically change the local and remote IP addresses to match those obtained when an actual connection (either SLIP or PPP) is made.
fifo FILE Turns on the FIFO command channel. Diald will attempt to open a named pipe with the pathname FILE. External programs can write commands to the pipe and diald will react.
first-packet-timeout NN Set the first packet timeout to NN seconds.
flushfilters Remove all existing filter rule definitions.
flushprules Remove all existing protocol rule definitions.
flushvars Remove all existing variable definitions.
give-way Normally if a FIFO connect request comes in while a connection script is running, the FIFO connect request shell is terminated. This command reverses this behavior so the connect script will be terminated and the FIFO request honoured.
ignore <prot-rule> <pack-rule> Define a packet matching rule to control the link.
Packets that match an ignore rule will be ignored and will not match any later rules.
Except for the lack of a <time> parameter, the parameters are exactly as described for the accept command.
impulse <dur>,<fuzz>,
impulse <init-dur>,<sec-dur>,<fuzz>
The impulse command is used to control the link up time in units larger than a single second.
ip-down FILE The designated script or executable is called by diald whenever the IP layer is brought down.
The script receives the same arguments as the addroute script.
ip-up FILE The designated script or executable is called by diald whenever the IP layer is brought up.
The script receives the same arguments as the addroute script.
keepalive NN This option tells diald to set the SLIP keepalive timer to NN seconds. Range: 0-255.
keepup <prot-rule> <time> <pack-rule> Define a packet matching rule to control the link.
Packets that match a keepup rule will cause the link to stay up, if it is already up, for at least <time> seconds. These rules are ignored if the link is currently down.
The parameters are exactly as described for the accept command.
kill-timeout NN Set the maximum amount of time to wait for a subprocess to die after sending a SIGKILL to NN seconds.
local IP Sets the local IP address for the link established by diald. This option is not optional.
lock Perform UUCP style locking of the serial line.
lock-prefix PATH Set the pathname prefix to use for modem device lock files.
modem Treat the serial device as a modem.
mru NN Set the MRU (Maximum Receive Unit) to NN.
mtu NN Set the MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit) to NN.
netmask MASK Set the netmask to be used for the interface.
nodev-retry-timeout NN Set the delay between dialing attempts when no free modem device is available to NN seconds.
outfill NN This option tells diald to set the SLIP outfill timer to NN seconds. Range: 0-255.
path-bootpc PATH Set the path to the bootpc command.
path-ifconfig PATH Set the path to the ifconfig command.
path-pppd PATH Set the path to the pppd command.
path-route PATH Set the path to the route command.
pidfile FILE Changes the name of the file that diald uses to store its own PID from to the given file.
pidstring Write lock files as an ASCII string representing the process identifier of the locking program (default).
pppd-options OPTS ... When diald is being used in PPP mode extra commands can be passed on to pppd by specifying them after a pppd-options command, or after "--" on the command line.
proxyarp Tell diald to add an entry to this system's ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) table with the IP address of the remote system, and the Ethernet address of this system.
prule <name> <protocol> <spec> Define a new protocol rule called <name> to be used in filter statements.
The <protocol> field must either be the name of a protocol defined in /etc/protocols, the special keyword "any", or an integer between 0 and 254 inclusive.
The <spec> field is a list of 16 colon separated offset codes that specify the bytes to be extracted from a packet to build a connection identifier.
redial-backoff-limit NN Set the maximum number of seconds diald will delay between failed calls when it invokes the backoff algorithm.
redial-backoff-start NN Specifies the number of consecutive failures to connect allowed before diald starts doubling the delay between dialing attempts after each attempt.
redial-timeout NN Set the delay between dialing attempts to NN seconds.
remote IP Sets the remote IP address for the link established by diald. This option is not optional.
reroute This command asks diald to change the system routes to point to the real link when it brings it up, rather than forwarding packets from the proxy to the real link.
restrict <s> <e> <wd> <md> <m>,
or-restrict <s> <e> <wd> <md> <m>
Normally filter rules apply at all times. The restrict statement makes all filter rules following the restrict statement, up to the next restrict statement, apply only at the times indicated by the restrict statement.
The or-restrict command expands the immediately preceding restrict to include the range of times specified by the or-restrict command.
Arguments are <start-time> <end-time> <weekdays> <monthdays> <months>.
retry-count NN Set the maximum number of times diald should attempt to make the initial connection without falling back and waiting for more network traffic.
rotate-devices This command forces diald to rotate the list of devices each time a device is opened.
route-wait On some badly configured PPP servers, traffic will not flow until a routing daemon notices that the PPP link has come up, at which time a routing packet will cross the link from the server to the local side. This option tells diald that it is interoperating with server that is broken in this way, and that it should not consider the IP layer to have come up until it sees at least one packet come from the remote side.
run-prefix PATH Set the directory where diald writes out its PID file.
speed BAUD Set the baud rate to use on the serial line.
start-pppd-timeout NN Set the maximum amount of time to wait for pppd to choose a PPP device to NN seconds.
stop-dial-timeout NN Set the maximum amount of time to wait for connect to die after sending a SIGINT to NN seconds.
stop-pppd-timeout NN Set the maximum amount of time to wait for pppd to die after sending it SIGINT to NN seconds.
two-way Normally if the connection is broken by the other end hanging up diald will immediately re-dial the other end. This command forces diald to re-dial only if there is some outgoing traffic.
up The up rule forces the link to be up at all times, regardless of the packet filtering that is in force.
var <name> <spec> Define a new variable called <name> to be used in filter statements.
The <spec> portion of the definition defines how to construct the value of the variable from a packet.
window NN This option specifies a TCP window size to place in routing table entries.

Command: dir
Location: /bin
Type: Script
Usage: dir [dirname]
Purpose: Prints files in a six column display with executables marked with a "*".
Option(s): None.

Command: dirname
Location: /bin
Type: Script
Usage: dirname /dir/filename.extension
Purpose: Separates only the directory from the full directory and file name.
Option(s): None.

Command: dmesg
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: dmesg [-c] [-n LEVEL] [-s SIZE]
Purpose: Prints or controls the kernel ring buffer.
-c Clears the ring buffer's contents after printing.
-n LEVEL Sets console logging to level LEVEL.
-s SIZE Use a buffer of size SIZE.

Command: dnsmasq
Location: /sbin
Type: Binary
Usage: dnsmasq [options]
Purpose: A caching DNS forwarder.
-A /DOMAIN/IPADDR Return ipaddr for all hosts in specified domains.
-a IPADDR Specify local address(es) to listen on.
-b Fake reverse lookups for RFC1918 private address ranges.
-B IPADDR Treat IPADDR as NXDOMAIN (defeats VeriSign wildcard).
-c CACHESIZE Specify the size of the cache in entries (defaults to 150).
-d Do NOT fork into the background: run in debug mode.
-D Do NOT forward queries with no domain part.
-e Return self-pointing MX records for local hosts.
-E Expand simple names in /etc/hosts with domain-suffix.
-f Don't forward spurious DNS requests from Windows hosts.
-g GROUPNAME Change to this group after startup (defaults to dip).
-h Do NOT load /etc/hosts file.
-H PATH Specify a hosts file to be read in addition to /etc/hosts.
-i INTERFACE Specify interface(s) to listen on.
-I INTERFACE Specify interface(s) NOT to listen on.
-L Return MX records for local hosts.
-l PATH Specify the path to the DHCP lease file.
-m HOST_NAME Specify the MX name to reply to.
-n Do NOT poll /etc/resolv.conf file, reload only on SIGHUP.
-N Do NOT cache failed search results.
-o Use nameservers strictly in the order given in /etc/resolv.conf.
-p PORT Specify port to listen for DNS requests on (defaults to 53).
-q Log queries.
-Q PORT Force the originating port for upstream queries.
-R Do NOT read resolv.conf.
-r PATH Specify path to resolv.conf (defaults to /etc/resolv.conf).
-S /DOMAIN/IPADDR Specify address(es) of upstream servers with optional domains.
-s DOMAIN Specify the domain suffix which DHCP entries will use.
-t HOST_NAME Specify the host in an MX reply.
-T TTL Specify time-to-live in seconds for replies from /etc/hosts.
-u USERNAME Change to this user after startup (defaults to nobody).
-v Display version.
-w Display this message.
-x PATH Specify path of PID file (defaults to /var/

Command: dropbear
Location: /sbin
Type: Binary
Usage: dropbear [OPTIONS]
Purpose: Multicall binary that provides SSH server and client in addition to SFTP, Security key conversion and creation.
-d KEYFILE Use KEYFILE for the dss host key (default:/etc/dropbear.dss).
-E Log to stderr rather than syslog.
-F Don't fork into background.
-g Disable password logins for root.
-j Disable local port forwarding.
-p PORT Listen on specified tcp port, up to 10 can be specified (default 22 if none specified).
-r KEYFILE Use KEYFILE for the rsa host key (default:/etc/dropbear.rsa).
-s Disable password logins.
-w Disallow root logins.

Command: dropbearconvert
Location: /sbin
Type: Binary
Purpose: Convert private keys between Dropbear and OpenSSH format.

The input and output types are one of:
Option(s): None.

Command: dropbearkey
Location: /sbin
Type: Binary
Usage: dropbearkey -t <TYPE> -f <FILENAME> [-s BITS]
Purpose: Create or display the dropbear keys.
-f FILENAME Use FILENAME for the secret key.
-s BITS Key size in bits, should be a multiple of 8 (optional).
-t TYPE Type of key to generate (rsa or dss).
-y Just print the public key and fingerprint for the private key in FILENAME.

Command: dyndns
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: dyndns [-f]
Purpose: This is a dynamic DNS client that will update, zoneedit, loopia, dhs, domain-dns, and is capable of being configured to support unsupported dynamic DNS servers.
-f Forces an update of your external IP address even if the status is already up to date.

Command: echo
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: echo [-neE] [ARG ...]
Purpose: Prints the specified ARGs to stdout.
-e Interpret backslash-escaped characters <i.e., \t=tab>.
-E Disable interpretation of backslash-escaped characters.
-n Suppress trailing newline.

Command: edit
Location: /bin
Type: Script
Usage: edit filename
Purpose: This script uses the editor listed in the advanced setup (default: edt) to edit files, except when finished it syncs the drive so changes are permanent and clears the screen.
Option(s): None.

Command: edt
Location: /sbin
Type: Binary
Usage: edt [-r] filename
Purpose: A simple file editor.
-r Read-Only mode. Will not allow any changes to be made.

Command: email
Location: /bin
Type: Script
Usage: email [[-messages] [-secure] [-infologs] [-netinfo] [-report]] [user@domain]
Purpose: Send logs through email.
If no email address is entered, the default email address in the configuration will be used.
Option(s): None.

Command: false
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: false
Purpose: Returns a false status for usage by shell scripts.
Option(s): None.

Command: find
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: find PATH -name PATTERN
find PATH -follow
find PATH -print
Purpose: Search for files in a directory hierarchy. The default PATH is the current directory; default EXPRESSION is '-print'.
-follow Dereference symbolic links.
-name PATTERN File name (leading directories removed) matches PATTERN.
-print Print (default and assumed).

Command: fork
Location: /sbin
Type: Binary
Usage: fork PROGRAM
Purpose: Starts an independent shell for the program to run in.
Option(s): None.

Command: fpenguin
Location: /bin
Type: Script
Usage: fpenguin [OPTIONS]
Purpose: Screen saver.

Use CRTL+c to terminate.
blogo Displays the boot logo with animated penguin and exits.
spage Displays the FREESCO logo and exits.

Command: free
Location: /bin
Type: Script
Usage: free
Purpose: Display all memory usage and disk usage.
Option(s): None.

Command: freetime
Location: /sbin
Type: Binary
Usage: freetime [OPTIONS]
Purpose: Used by the synctime script to correct the system clock.
-d Debug mode, shows additional info.
-n /PATH/FILE Set alternative location for ntpdate command (default is /bin/ntpdate).
-o /PATH/FILE Set alternative location for ntpdate result file (default is /tmp/freetime.dat).
-q Query.

Command: fromdos
Location: /bin
Type: Script
Usage: fromdos < Dos.file > Linux.file
Purpose: Converts files that are in DOS format to Linux format files.
Option(s): None.

Command: grep
Location: /bin
Type: Script
Usage: OUTPUT ¦ grep PATTERN
Purpose: Takes command OUTPUT and filters it to only display lines that match the specified PATTERN.
Option(s): None.

Command: gunzip
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: gunzip [OPTION]... FILE
Purpose: Uncompress FILE (or standard input if FILE is '-').
-c Write output to standard output.
-t Test compressed file integrity.

Command: gzip
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: gzip [OPTION] FILE
Purpose: Compress files.
-c Write output to standard output instead of FILE.gz.
-d Decompress.

Command: halt
Location: /sbin
Type: Binary
Usage: halt
Purpose: Stops the system so it can be turned off.
Option(s): None.

Command: hardinfo
Location: /bin
Type: Script
Usage: hardinfo
Purpose: Prints current detected hardware to stdout.
Option(s): None.

Command: hostname
Location: /bin
Type: Script
Usage: hostname
Purpose: Returns the name and domain of the current system.
Option(s): None.

Command: htpasswd
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: htpasswd [-c] passwordfile username
Purpose: Add a user and hashed password to the password file specified.
-c Creates a new file.

Command: ifconfig
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: ifconfig [-a] <interface> [<address>] [OPTIONS]
Purpose: Configure a network interface.
Enable/disable sending of incoming frames to the kernel's network layer.
Enable/disable use of the Address Resolution Protocol in mapping between network-level addresses and link-level addresses.
broadcast [<ADDRESS>],
-broadcast [<ADDRESS>]
Sets/Unsets broadcast address to <ADDRESS>.
down Mark an interface "down" (unresponsive).
Sets/Unsets the interface as having dynamic IP address. When the interface goes down or an associated device hangs up all TCP sockets having its source address are reset.
hw ether <address> Sets MAC address to <address> (used for MAC spoofing).
io_addr <NN> I/O memory start address for device.
irq <NN> Set the device's interrupt line.
keepalive <NN> Set SLIP "keep alive" timeout in seconds. If FRAME_END not received during this time period, a reconnect will occur. Active "out fill" timeout expected from other side. Default value is no timeout.
mem_start <NN> Shared memory start address for device.
metric <NN> Set routing metric of the interface to NN.
mtu <NN> Set the interface's Maximum Transfer Unit (MTU).
multicast Set the multicast flag.
netmask <ADDRESS> Sets netmask to <ADDRESS>.
outfill <NN> Set SLIP "out fill" timeout in seconds. It causes at least one FRAME_END to be sent during this timeout. Needed for "keep alive" timeout on other side. Default value is no timeout.
pointopoint [<ADDRESS>],
-pointopoint [<ADDRESS>]
Enable/disable point-to-point interfacing, so that the connection between the two machines is dedicated.
Enable/disable promiscuous mode. Promiscuous mode allows the device to receive all packets on the network.
txqueuelen <NN> Specify the transmit queue length.
up Mark an interface "up" (ready to send and receive).

Command: ile
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: ile
Purpose: Enables command line history for the ash shell.
Option(s): None.

Command: init
Location: /sbin
Type: Binary
Usage: None.
Purpose: Init is the parent of all processes.
Option(s): None.

Command: insmod
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: insmod [-fkmopsvVxX] [-o name] MODULE [[sym=value]...]
Purpose: Inserts a module into the running kernel.
-f Force loading under wrong kernel version.
-k Make module (autoclean)-able.
-L Lock to prevent simultaneous loads of a module.
-m Generate loadmap (so crashes can be traced).
-o NAME Set internal module name to NAME.
-p Poll mode, just check if the module matches the kernel.
-s Report errors via syslog.
-v Verbose output.
-V Show version.
-x Do *not* export externs.
-X *Do* export externs.
MODULE Filename of a loadable kernel module (*.o).

Command: ipautofw
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: ipautofw <command> <options>

Valid commands:
-A add new autoforward entry
-D delete an autoforward entry
-F flush the autoforward table
Purpose: Forward a range of ports from the external interface to a specified internal client.
-c TYPE PORT Specifies a control port and protocol.
-d TYPE LOW HIGH Specifies a set of ports which will not use the default high range (60000+) masquerade port area.
-h IPADDR IP address of host to receive forwarded packets.
-i Insecure mode. Any host many connect after implied by not using the -c option or implied by using the -h option once the control port has been triggered.
-p TYPE VISIBLE HOST:HIDDEN Set up port bouncing from VISIBLE host port to masqueraded host HOST on port HIDDEN, protocol TYPE (currently not supported).
-r TYPE LOW HIGH Forwarding on ports LOW to HIGH using protocol TYPE (tcp or udp).
-u Do *not* require that a host connect within 15 seconds of triggering the control port.
-v Verbose output.

Command: ipcalc
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: ipcalc <NETMASK> <ADDRESS>
Purpose: Calculate IP network and broadcast settings from an IP address.
Option(s): None.

Command: ipfwadm
Location: /sbin
Type: Binary
Usage: ipfwadm -A¦I¦O¦F¦M <Command> <Option>
Purpose: Used to set up, maintain, and inspect the IP firewall and accounting rules.

Valid Commands are:
-a [POLICY] append
-c check acceptance of packet
-d [POLICY] delete
-f remove rules of this category
-i [POLICY] insert
-l list all rules
-p POLICY default policy (accept/deny/reject)
-s TCP TCPFIN UDP timeout values
-z reset packet counters
-b Bidirectional.
-D IPADDR[/MASK] [PORT ...] Destination.
-e Extended output.
-k Match TCP packets when ACK set.
-m Masquerade as from local host.
-n Numeric output.
-o Kernel logging.
-P Protocol (tcp, udp, icmp, or all).
-r [PORT] Redirect to local port PORT.
-S IPADDR[/MASK] [PORT ...] Source.
-t AND XOR AND/XOR masks for TOS.
-v Verbose output.
-V ADDR Interface address.
-W NAME Interface name.
-x Expand numbers.
-y Match TCP packets when SYN set and ACK cleared.

Command: ipfwd
Location: /sbin
Type: Binary
Usage: ipfwd [options] remote-host protocol
Purpose: Forward a specific protocol family to a specific IP address.
Check /etc/protocols for the protocol numbers.
-d Debug.
-m Masquerade IP datagrams.

Command: ipportfw
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: ipportfw <Command> <Option>

Add entry: -A [-t¦u] LIP/LPORT -R DIP/DPORT
Delete entry: -D [-t¦u] LIP/LPORT
Clear table: -C
List table: -L

DIP: Destination IP.
DPORT: Destination Port.
LIP: Local IP.
LPORT: Local Port.
Purpose: Forward a specified external to a specified internal port to an internal host.

[-t¦u] - TCP or UDP.
LIP - Local IP address.
LPORT - Local port.
DIP - Destination IP address.
DPORT - Destination port.
Option(s): None.

Command: isapnp
Location: /sbin
Type: Binary
Usage: isapnp CONFIG-FILE
Purpose: Activate and configure ISA PnP cards in the system from CONFIG-FILE.
CONFIG-FILE is generated with pnpdump and then edited to your needs.
Option(s): None.

Command: ispstats
Location: /bin
Type: Script
Usage: ispstats [MM] [YY]
Purpose: Process ISP PPP connection data and format it into a readable format.
MM Month 01 to 12.
YY Year 00 to 99.

Command: kill
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: kill [-(SIG_NUM)] (PID)
Purpose: Send a signal to terminate one or more Process IDs.
-SIG_NUM Send signal SIG_NUM. Signals are 1 through 15. The default signal is 2 if none is specified.

Command: killall
Location: /sbin
Type: Script
Usage: killall program [-SIG_NUM]
Purpose: Kill all instances of a program.
-SIG_NUM Send signal SIG_NUM. Signals are 1 through 15. The default signal is 2 if none is specified.

Command: klogd
Location: /sbin
Type: Binary
Usage: klogd [options]
Purpose: Control which kernel messages are displayed on the console, prioritize all messages, and log them through syslogd.
-c N Sets the default log level of console messages to N.
-d Enable debugging mode. This will generate LOTS of output to stderr.
-f FILE Log messages to the specified filename rather than to the syslog facility.
-i Signals the daemon to reload the kernel module symbols.
-I Signals for a reload of both the static kernel symbols and the kernel module symbols.
-k FILE Use the specified file as the source of kernel symbol information.
-n Avoid auto-backgrounding. This is needed especially if the klogd is started and controlled by init.
-o Execute in 'one-shot' mode. This causes klogd to read and log all the messages that are found in the kernel message buffers. After a single read and log cycle the daemon exits.
-p Enable paranoia. This option controls when klogd loads kernel module symbol information. Setting this switch causes klogd to load the kernel module symbol information whenever an Oops string is detected in the kernel message stream.
-s Force klogd to use the system call interface to the kernel message buffers.
-v Display version.
-x Omits EIP translation and doesn't read the

Command: length
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: length STRING
Purpose: Print the number of characters in STRING.
Option(s): None.

Command: ll
Location: /bin
Type: Script
Usage: ll [dir]
Purpose: Long file listing format. (Link to 'ls -l')
Option(s): None.

Command: ln
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Purpose: Create a link named LINK_NAME or DIRECTORY to the specified TARGET

You may use '--' to indicate that all following arguments are non-options.
-f Remove existing destination files.
-n No dereference symlinks - treat like normal file.
-s Make symbolic links instead of hard links.

Command: load
Location: /sbin
Type: Script
Usage: load program/script
Purpose: Loads a gzip'ed executable binary or script and executes it into memory as if it was uncompressed normally without uncompressing the original code.
Option(s): None.

Command: loadkmap
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: None.
Purpose: The system uses this binary to load a language specific binary keyboard translation table into the system.
Option(s): None.

Command: logger
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: logger [OPTION]... [MESSAGE]
Purpose: Write MESSAGE to the system log. If MESSAGE is omitted, log stdin.
-p Enter the message with the specified priority.
This may be numerical or a "facility.level" pair.
-s Log to stderr as well as the system log.
-t Log using the specified tag (defaults to user name).

Command: login
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: login [username [environmental-variables]]
Purpose: Log into the system.
Option(s): None.

Command: logrotate
Location: /sbin
Type: Binary
Usage: fork logrotate BOOTDEVICE InfoLogSize MessagesLogSize LoginLogSize EnableLogger EmailLogs

Example: fork logrotate /dev/hda1 30000 30000 5000 y n

All of the above commands line arguments are required.
Purpose: System binary that monitors files and rotates logs.

WARNING: There are no flags with the logrotate binary, however it MUST be supplied specific arguments and it MUST be forked into a background process and not more than one logrotate process can run at the same time!
BOOTDEVICE The boot device.
EmailLogs Enable the logs to be emailed at rotation time y/n (default is n).
EnableLogger Enable the network loging screen on screen 6 y/n (default is y).
InfoLogSize The size of the infolog before rotation in bytes (30000 default).
LoginLogSize The size of the logins file in bytes (5000 default).
MessagesLogSize The size of the messages file before rotation (30000 default).

Command: lpd
Location: /sbin
Type: Binary
Usage: lpd [-l] [-d] [-p PORT] [-r RAW[:DEV]] [-f FEED[:DEV]] [-o DEV] [-t TIMEOUT] [-q LEN]
Purpose: LPR print server deamon.

Notes: Up to ten subnets may be included, and up to ten name:device pairs are supported for each queue type.
-d Enable debug status logging.
-f FEED[:DEV] Set the FormFeed print queue name, and optionally it's Device name (max 32 char). (Default: lp:/dev/lp)
-l Disable log output.
-o DEV Set the default name of Output File/Device name (max 256 char). (Default: /dev/lp)
-p PORT Set the TCP/IP port in decimal. (Default: 515)
-q LEN Set the length of request queue. (Default: 5)
-r RAW[:DEV] Set the Raw print queue name, and optionally it's Device name (max 32 char). (Default: nt:/dev/lp)
-t TIMEOUT Set the number of seconds of no data from a client before timing out. (Default: 300)

Command: ls
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: ls [-1AacCdeFhiklnprsStTuvwXx] [filenames...]
Purpose: List directory contents.
-1 List files in a single column.
-A Do not list implied '.' and '..' entries.
-a Do not hide entries starting with '.'.
-C List entries by columns.
-c Used with -l: show ctime.
-d List directory entries instead of contents.
-e List both full date and full time.
-F Append indicator (one of */=@¦) to entries.
-h Print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 243M 2G).
-i List the i-node for each file.
-k Print sizes in kilobytes(default).
-l Use a long listing format.
-n List numeric UIDs and GIDs instead of names.
-p Append indicator (one of /=@¦) to entries.
-r Sort the listing in reverse order.
-S Sort the listing by file size.
-s List the size of each file, in blocks.
-t Used with -l: show modification time.
-T NUM Assume Tabstop every NUM columns.
-u Used with -l: show access time.
-v Sort the listing by version.
-w NUM Assume the terminal is NUM columns wide.
-x List entries by lines instead of by columns.
-X Sort the listing by extension.

Command: lsmod
Location: /bin
Type: Script
Usage: lsmod
Purpose: List all currently loaded kernel modules.
Option(s): None.

Command: math
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: math XX YY OPTION
Purpose: Perform mathematical calculations using numbers XX and YY.
add Perform addition.
div Perform division.
mul Perform multiplication.
sub Perform subtraction.

Command: mgetty
Location: /sbin
Type: Script
Usage: None.
Purpose: System file to control dialin connections and connection times.
Option(s): None.

Command: mini_sendmail
Location: /sbin
Type: Binary
Usage: mini_sendmail [-f<name>] [-t] [-s<server>] [-p<port>] [-T<timeout>] [-v] [address ...]
Purpose: With no flags, mini_sendmail reads its standard input up to an end-of-file and sends a copy of the message found there to all of the addresses listed.
The message is sent by connecting to a local SMTP server. This means mini_sendmail can be used to send mail from inside a chroot(2) area.
-f NAME Sets the name of the 'From' person to NAME.
-p PORT Specifies the port to use (default is standard SMTP port 25).
-s SERVER Specifies the SMTP server to use (default is 'localhost').
-t Read message for recipients.
To:, Cc:, and Bcc: lines will be scanned for recipient addresses. The Bcc: line will be deleted before transmission.
-T TIMEOUT Specifies timeout - defaults to one minute.
-v Verbose mode - shows the conversation with the SMTP server.

Command: minicom
Location: /bin
Type: Script
Usage: minicom [PORT] [SPEED]
Purpose: Serial terminal.
PORT The desired port to access. If omitted, the default defined modem port is used.
SPEED The speed the serial port should be accessed at. If ommitted, 38400 is used.

Command: miterm
Location: /sbin
Type: Binary
Usage: miterm [-s SPEED] [-l LINE] [-e ESC-CHAR]
Purpose: Create a terminal connection. System file that is used by "minicom" to create a terminal and comunicate to a serial port.
Option(s): None.

Command: mkdir
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: mkdir new-dir-name
Purpose: Create a directory.
Option(s): None.

Command: mknod
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Purpose: Create a special file (block, character, or pipe).
TYPEs include:
b: Make a block (buffered) device.
c or u: Make a character (un-buffered) device.
p: Make a named pipe. MAJOR and MINOR are ignored for named pipes.
-m Create the special file using the specified mode (default a=rw).

Command: mkswap
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: mkswap [-c] [-v0¦-v1] device [block-count]
Purpose: Prepare a disk partition to be used as a swap partition.
-c Check for readability.
-v0 Make version 0 swap [max 128 Megs].
-v1 Make version 1 swap [big!] (default for kernels > 2.1.117).
block-count Number of blocks to use (default is entire partition).

Command: mode
Location: /sbin
Type: Script
Usage: mode [option]
Purpose: Change the current connection type to the desired connection type, or if in dialup mode, to change the external connection to a different ISP on the fly without changing the default mode permanently.
bridge Switch to bridge mode.
default Switch to default router mode.
dialup Switch to dialup mode and the default ISP.
dialup ISP_NAME Switch to dialup with given ISP.
ethernet Switch to ethernet router mode.
leased Switch to leased line router.

Command: more
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: more filename
OUTPUT ¦ more
Purpose: Display a file or OUTPUT one screen at a time.
Option(s): None.

Command: mount
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: mount [flags] DEVICE NODE [-o options,more-options]
Purpose: Mount a filesystem.
-a: Mount all filesystems in fstab.
-o option: One of many filesystem options, listed below.
-r: Mount the filesystem read-only.
-t fs-type: Specify the filesystem type.
-w: Mount for reading and writing (default).

There are EVEN MORE flags that are specific to each filesystem.
You'll have to see the written documentation for those filesystems.
async/sync Writes are asynchronous / synchronous.
atime/noatime Enable / disable updates to inode access times.
bind Use the linux 2.4.x "bind" feature.
dev/nodev Allow use of special device files / disallow them.
exec/noexec Allow use of executable files / disallow them.
loop Mounts a file via loop device.
remount Re-mount a mounted filesystem, changing its flags.
ro/rw Mount for read-only / read-write.
suid/nosuid Allow set-user-id-root programs / disallow them.

Command: mv
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Purpose: Rename SOURCE to DEST, or move SOURCE(s) to DIRECTORY.
Option(s): None.

Command: netinfo
Location: /bin
Type: Script
Usage: netinfo
Purpose: Displays all kinds of various network information to stdout.
Option(s): None.

Command: nice
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: nice [-n priority] PROGRAM
Purpose: This changes the process priority. If the Priority is omitted, 10 is used as a default.
-n PRIORITY Priority is a number between 20 and -20.
A Priority of 20 would mean the Application would only run if almost no other Applications were running.
A Priority of -20 means that it will be almost the only process allowed to run.

Command: nslookup
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: nslookup [HOST] [SERVER]
Purpose: Queries the nameserver for the IP address of the given HOST optionally using a specified DNS server.
Option(s): None.

Command: ntpdate
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: ntpdate [-bBdqsv] [-a KEY#] [-e DELAY] [-k FILE] [-p SAMPLES] [-o VERSION#] [-t TIMEO] server
Purpose: Used by the system to set the current time via the synctime script.
-a KEY# Enable authentication using the key identifier KEY#. The keys and key identifiers must match in both the client and server key files.
-B Force the time to always be slewed using the adjtime() system call, even if the measured offset is greater than +-128 ms.
-b Force the time to be stepped using the settimeofday() system call, rather than slewed (default) using the adjtime() system call.
-d Enable the debugging mode, in which ntpdate will go through all the steps, but not adjust the local clock.
-e DELAY Specify the processing delay to perform an authentication function (in seconds).
-k FILE Specify the authentication key file.
-o VERSION Specify the NTP version for outgoing packets as the integer VERSION, which can be 1 or 2. The default is 3. This allows ntpdate to be used with older NTP versions.
-p SAMPLES Specify the number of samples to be acquired from each server as the integer SAMPLES, with values from 1 to 8 inclusive.
-q Query only - don't set the clock.
-s Divert logging output from the standard output (default) to the system syslog facility.
-t TIMEO Specify the maximum time waiting for a server response (in seconds).
-v Verbose output.

Command: oidentd
Location: /sbin
Type: Binary
Usage: oidentd
Purpose: IDENT server daemon.
-A When spoofing is enabled, enable users to spoof ident on connections to privileged ports.
-a ADDR Bind to ADDR. (Defaults to INADDR_ANY).
-c CHARSET Specify an alternate charset (Defaults to "US-ASCII").
-d Enable debugging.
-e Return "UNKNOWN-ERROR" for all errors.
-F Same as -f, but always use the default port (113) by default.
-f PORT Forward requests for masqueraded hosts to the host on port PORT.
-g GID Run with specified gid.
-i Run from inetd.
-m Enable support for IP masquerading.
-n Return UIDs instead of usernames. (Incompatible with -r)
-N Allow identd hiding via ".noident".
-o Return "OTHER" instead of the operating system.
-P HOST HOST acts as a proxy, forwarding connections to us.
-p PORT Listen for connections on specified port (Defaults to auth).
-q Suppress normal logging.
-r Randomize identd replies. (Incompatible with -n)
-s Allow identd spoofing.
-S Same as -s, but allow all users but those listed in /etc/identd.spoof to spoof replies.
-t TIME Wait for TIME seconds before closing connection (Defaults to 15).
-T TIME oidentd will remain accepting connections when run with -w for TIME seconds.
-u UID Run with specified uid.
-w Wait mode.
-W oidentd is wrapped. (tcpwrappers)
-x STRING If a query fails, pretend it succeeded, returning STRING.

Command: passwd
Location: /sbin
Type: Binary
Usage: passwd [OPTION] [name]
Purpose: Change a user password. If no name is specified, changes the password for the current user.
-a ALG Define which algorithm shall be used for the password (des, md5, or sha1).
-d Delete the password for the specified user account.
-l Locks (disables) the specified user account.
-u Unlocks (re-enables) the specified user account.

Command: pidof
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: pidof process-name [process-name ...]
Purpose: Lists the PIDs of all processes with names that match the names on the command line.
Option(s): None.

Command: ping
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: ping [OPTION]... host
Purpose: Send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to network hosts.
-c COUNT Send only COUNT pings.
-q Quiet mode, only displays output at start and when finished.
-s SIZE Send SIZE data bytes in packets (default=56).

Command: pkg
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Purpose: Install or uninstall add-on packages.
http://www.dom (use given http site) or
ftp://ftp.dom (use given ftp site) or
/dir/file (use local disk) or
-/ (alias for http://default-web-site/)

pkg -c -/ # Get packages list from default site
pkg -c ftp://my.ftp.dom/pub/ # Get packages list from ftp server
pkg -i -/mc # Install mc from home site
pkg -i http://www.dom/mc # Install mc from http server
pkg -i /mnt/hd/dir/mc # Install mc from /mnt/hd/dir
pkg -u mc # Uninstall mc
pkg -s -/mc /mnt/hd/dir # Download mc from home site and save in /mnt/hd/dir.
pkg -s http://www.dom/mc # Download from www.dom and save in the default save directory.
-c Check URL for available packages list.
-i Install package from URL or DIR.
-l Show list and descriptions of installed packages.
-r Install package from URL or DIR onto ramdisk!!!
This option runs without any questions.
-s Download package from URL and save in DIR.
-u Uninstall package NAME.

Command: play
Location: /bin
Type: Script
Usage: play TEMPO 'NOTE1 NOTE2 NOTE3 ...'

TEMPO: How many 1/4 notes in 1 second.
NOTES: One or more notations like: 2c3 4#a1 or 8.d
Purpose: Play musical notes using the PC Speaker.

Syntax of Notes: Duration[Dot]NoteOctave

Special notes: Don't forget to enclose NOTES in single quotes, and the notation is the same that is used in Nokia mobile phones, so you can copy a melody from your phone or the internet.
Dot Increase duration by 1.5 times.
Duration 1 = 1/1.
2 = 1/2.
4 = 1/4.
8 = 1/8.
16 - 1/16.
32 = 1/32.
Note c = Do.
#c or dd = Di or Ra.
d = Re.
#d or de = Ri or Me.
e = Mi.
f = Fa.
#f or dg = Fi or Se.
g = So.
#g or da = Si or Le.
a = La.
#a or db = Li or Te.
b = Ti.
Octave 0, 1, 2, or 3.

Command: pnpdump
Location: /sbin
Type: Binary
Usage: pnpdump > file-name
Purpose: Creates the base configuration file for all ISA PnP cards.
Option(s): None.

Command: pppd
Location: /sbin
Type: Binary
Usage: pppd <device> <speed> [<loc>:<rem>] [options]
Purpose: Point-To-Point Protocol daemon that allows datagram transmission over a serial connection.

See pppd(8) for more options.
<device> Communicate over the named device.
<loc>:<rem> Set the local and/or remote interface IP addresses. Either one may be omitted.
<speed> Set the baud rate to <speed>.
asyncmap NN Set the desired async map to hex NN.
auth Require authentication from peer.
connect CMD Invoke shell command CMD to set up the serial line.
crtscts Use hardware RTS/CTS flow control.
defaultroute Add default route through interface.
file FILE Take options from file FILE.
modem Use modem control lines.
mru NN Set MRU value to NN for negotiation.

Command: pppmon
Location: /sbin
Type: Script
Usage: None.
Purpose: This script is used by the system to keep a ethernet PPP connection up by monitoring the ISP connection and restarting the connection if necessary.
Option(s): None.

Command: pppoe
Location: /sbin
Type: Binary
Usage: None.
Purpose: Module for pppd that allows the pppoe protocol.
Option(s): None.

Command: pptp
Location: /sbin
Type: Binary
Usage: None.
Purpose: Module for pppd that allows the pptp protocol.
Option(s): None.

Command: pptp_callmgr
Location: /sbin
Type: Binary
Usage: None.
Purpose: System file.
Option(s): None.

Command: printout
Location: /bin
Type: Script
Usage: printout [OPTIONS] /dir/filename
Purpose: Sends specified file to the printer.
-c Check # of pages in file.
-d Turn page Descriptor off.
-h Help.
-l Landscape.
-n Turn page Numbering off.
-o DEV Output to DEV (default: First defined device for the print server).
-p X,Y Print from page X to page Y.
-s Turn page Separator off.
-t Test page.

Command: ps
Location: /bin
Type: Script
Usage: ps
Purpose: Displays a list of all running processes.
Option(s): None.

Command: psh
Location: /sbin
Type: Script
Usage: None.
Purpose: System dialin user denial shell.
Option(s): None.

Command: pure-ftpd
Location: /sbin
Type: Binary
Usage: pure-ftpd [options]
Purpose: File Transfer Protocol daemon.
-1 Log pid.
-4 IPv4 only.
-A Chroot everyone.
-a Trusted gid.
-b Broken clients compatibility.
-B Daemonize.
-c NN Set maximum number of clients to NN.
-C NN Set maximum number of clients per IP to NN.
-d Verbose log.
-D Display dot files.
-e Anonymous only.
-E No anonymous.
-f Syslog facility.
-F Display fortunesfile.
-G No rename.
-g FILE Set pid file.
-H Don't resolve.
-i Anonymous can't upload.
-I TIME Set maximum idle time.
-j Create home directory.
-K Keep all files.
-k NN Set maximum disk usage to NN percent.
-L Limit recursion.
-M Anonymous can create dirs.
-m max load
-N NAT mode.
-o FILE Upload script.
-O FILE Alternate log file.
-p Set passive port range.
-P Force passive IP.
-q Set anonymous ratio.
-Q Set user ratio.
-r Auto rename.
-R No chmod.
-s Antiwarez.
-t Set anonymous bandwidth.
-T Set user bandwidth.
-u min uid
-V Trusted IP.
-w Allow user fxp.
-W Allow anonymous fxp.
-x Prohibit dot files write.
-X Prohibit dot files read.
-y Per User limits.
-z Allow dot files.
-Z Customer proof.

Command: pwd
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: pwd
Purpose: Displays the current directory.
Option(s): None.

Command: random
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: random stdout number
Purpose: Generate a random number.
Option(s): None.

Command: rasstats
Location: /bin
Type: Script
Usage: rasstats [MM] [YY]
Purpose: Process dialin statistics into a readable format.
If options are omitted the current month is used.
MM Month 01 to 12.
YY Year 00 to 99.

Command: reboot
Location: /sbin
Type: Binary
Usage: reboot
Purpose: Reboot the system.
Option(s): None.

Command: remotelog
Location: /sbin
Type: Script
Usage: remotelog
Purpose: This script is intended to be used in a SSH session remotely to parse the logs in real time to the screen. Use "CTRL+c" to terminate.
Option(s): None.

Command: report
Location: /bin
Type: Script
Usage: report [OPTIONS]
Purpose: Generate a report.txt file in /boot containing current system configuration information.
OPTIONS can be any executable commands.
Multipart single commands must be inside "" quotes.
Option(s): None.

Command: rm
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: rm [OPTION]... FILE...
Purpose: Remove (unlink) the FILE(s). You may use '--' to indicate that all following arguments are non-options.
-f Force. Remove existing destinations, never prompt.
-i Always prompt before removing each destination.
-r or -R Recursive.

Command: rmlogs
Location: /sbin
Type: Script
Usage: rmlogs N
Purpose: Sets the number of days to keep logs. All older logs are removed.
N Remove all logs that are older than N days.

Command: rmmod
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: rmmod module-name
Purpose: Removes a module from the kernel.
Option(s): None.

Command: route
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: route [-v] add {-net¦-host} TARGET [gw GATEWAY] [metric NN] [netmask MASK] [mss MAXSEG] [window MAXWIN] [[dev] DEVICE]
route [-v] del TARGET
Purpose: Edit the kernel's routing tables. If no additional parameters are specified, the current table is displayed.
-host TARGET is a host.
-net TARGET is a network.
-v Verbose output.
dev DEVICE Force the route to be associated with the specified device.
gw GATEWAY Route packets for this route via GATEWAY.
metric NN Set the metric field in the routing table (used by routing daemons) to NN.
mss MAXSEG Set the TCP Maximum Segment Size (MSS) for connections over this route to MAXSEG bytes.
netmask MASK When adding a network route, set the netmask to MASK.
TARGET The destination network or host. You can provide IP addresses in dotted decimal or host/network names.
window MAXWIN Set the TCP window size for connections over this route to MAXWIN bytes.

Command: runchk
Location: /bin
Type: Script
Usage: runchk program
Purpose: Returns either a 0 exit code if the program is currently running or a 1 if it is not running.
Option(s): None.

Command: savelogs
Location: /sbin
Type: Script
Usage: None.
Purpose: Used by the system to saves the cycled logs to the /home/root/var/ directory with a date and time stamp amended to the file name.
Option(s): None.

Command: scp
Location: /sbin
Type: Binary
Usage: scp [-pqrvBC1246] [-F CONFIG] [-S PROGRAM] [-P PORT] [-c CIPHER] [-i IDENTITY] [-w REMOTEPROG] [-l LIMIT] [-o OPTION] [[user@]host1:]file1 [...] [[user@]host2:]file2
Purpose: Secure copy, remote file copy program.
-1 Forces scp to use protocol 1.
-2 Forces scp to use protocol 2.
-4 Forces scp to use IPv4 addresses only.
-6 Forces scp to use IPv6 addresses only.
-B Selects batch mode (prevents asking for passwords or passphrases).
-C Compression enable. Passes the -C flag to ssh(1) to enable compression.
-c CIPHER Selects the cipher to use for encrypting the data transfer. This option is directly passed to ssh(1).
-F CONFIG Specifies an alternative per-user configuration file for ssh. This option is directly passed to ssh(1).
-i IDENTITY Selects the file from which the identity (private key) for RSA authentication is read. This option is directly passed to ssh(1).
-l LIMIT Limits the used bandwidth, specified in Kbit/s.
-o OPTION Can be used to pass options to ssh in the format used in ssh_config(5). This is useful for specifying options for which there is no separate scp command-line flag.
-p Preserves modification times, access times, and modes from the original file.
-P PORT Specifies the port to connect to on the remote host.
-q Quiet mode.
-r Recursive.
-S PROGRAM Name of program to use for the encrypted connection. The program must understand ssh(1) options.
-v Verbose output.
-w REMOTEPROG Same as -S, but for remote connection.

Command: sed
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: sed [OPTION] [input-file] ...
Purpose: Stream editor is used to perform basic text transformations on an input stream (a file or input from a pipeline).

The full extent of SED commands & how they can be used can't be explained in this small space. Try doing an internet search for the terms "sed man" or "sed howto" for more info.

NOTE!: Line numbering output is disabled.
-e SCRIPT Add SCRIPT to the commands to be executed.
-f FILE Add the contents of FILE to the commands to be executed.
-n Suppress automatic printing of pattern space.

Command: serverchk
Location: /sbin
Type: Binary
Usage: serverchk server-URL port
Purpose: Used to check servers for connectivity.
Option(s): None.

Command: servermon
Location: /sbin
Type: Script
Usage: None.
Purpose: Used by the system to monitor Servers for connectivity and restart them if necessary.
Option(s): None.

Command: setleds
Location: /sbin
Type: Binary
Usage: setleds [-v] [-L] [-D] [-F] [[+¦-][ num ¦ caps ¦ scroll ]]
Purpose: Turn keyboard LEDs on and off.

Ex: 'setleds +caps -num' will set Caps Lock, clear Num Lock and leave Scroll Lock unchanged.
Normally, setleds influences the vt flag settings (and these are usually reflected in the LEDs).
-D Sets both the flags and the default flags, so that a subsequent reset will not change the flags.
-F Only sets the flags, and leaves the LEDs alone.
-L Only sets the LEDs, and leaves the flags alone.

Command: setserial
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: setserial serial-device [cmd1 [arg]] ...
Purpose: Manipulate a serial port's settings.

Available commands: (* = Takes an argument) (^ = can be preceded by a '^' to turn off the option)
* port = set the I/O port
* irq = set the interrupt
* uart = set UART type (none, 8250, 16450, 16550, 16550A)
* baud_base = set base baud rate (CLOCK_FREQ / 16)
* divisor = set the custom divisor (see spd_custom)
* close_delay = set the amount of time in 1/100 of a second that DTR should be kept low while being closed
^ fourport = configure the port as an AST Fourport
autoconfigure = automatically configure the serial port
^ auto_irq = try to determine irq during autoconfiguration
^ skip_test = skip UART test during autoconfiguration

^ sak = set the break key as the Secure Attention Key
^ session_lockout = Lock out callout port across different sessions
^ pgrp_lockout = Lock out callout port across different process groups on the callout device
^ split_termios = Use separate termios for callout and dialin lines
^ hup_notify = Notify a process blocked on opening a dial in line when a process has finished using a callout line by returning EAGAIN to the open.

spd_hi = use 56kb instead of 38.4kb
spd_vhi = use 115kb instead of 38.4kb
spd_cust = use the custom divisor to set the speed at 38.4kb (baud rate = baud_base / custom_divisor)
spd_normal = use 38.4kb when a baud rate of 38.4kb is selected

Use a leading '0x' for hex numbers.
CAUTION: Using an invalid port can lock up your machine!
Option(s): None.

Command: setspeed
Location: /sbin
Type: Script
Usage: setspeed LINE SPEED
Purpose: Set the speed of a serial port.
Option(s): None.

Command: setup
Location: /sbin
Type: Script
Usage: setup
Purpose: Shell wrapper that uncompresses /boot/setup.gz and runs it. This contains the main configuration program for FREESCO.
Option(s): None.

Command: sftpserver
Location: /sbin
Type: Binary
Usage: None
Purpose: Used by SSH (dropbear) for sftp connections.
Option(s): None.

Command: sh
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: sh [-efIijnsxz ] [+efIijnsxz] [-c COMMAND] [arg] ...
Purpose: Basic ash shell that all FREESCO scripts use.

If options are given, it sets the specified option flags, or clears them if the option flags are introduced with a '+' rather than a '-'.
-e Causes the shell to exit when a command terminates with a nonzero exit status, except when the exit status of the command is explicitly tested.
-f Turn off file name generation.
-I Cause the shell to ignore end of file conditions.
-i Make the shell interactive.
-j Turns on Berkeley job control, on systems that support it. When the shell starts up, the -j is set by default if the -i flag is set.
-n Causes the shell to read commands but not execute them.
-s If this flag is set when the shell starts up, the shell reads commands from its standard input. The shell doesn't examine the value of this flag any other time.
-x If this flag is set, the shell will print out each command before executing it.
-z If this flag is set, the file name generation process may generate zero files. If it is not set, then a pattern which does not match any files will be replaced by a quoted version of the pattern.

Command: shapecfg
Location: /sbin
Type: Binary
Usage: shapecfg attach <device> <device>
shapecfg speed <device> <speed>
Purpose: Configure and control the shaper module to enable bandwidth control.
Option(s): None.

Command: sleep
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: sleep N
Purpose: Used to cause scripts to wait for a specified amount of time.

N is defined in seconds and will pause for N seconds.
Option(s): None.

Command: smtpclient
Location: /sbin
Type: Binary
Usage: smtpclient [options] < FILE
Purpose: Program used to send email.
Address to send copy of message to Processing.
Address to send delivery errors to.
Address of the sender.
-h Help.
Log errors to syslog facility instead of stderr.
Use MIME-style translation to quoted-printable.
ort where MTA can be contacted via SMTP.
Address of the sender for replies.
Host where MTA can be contacted via SMTP.
Subject line of message.
-v Verbose output.
-V Show version.

Command: snarf
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: snarf [OPTIONS] URL [OUTFILE] ...
Purpose: Retrieve files via the http and ftp protocols.

Lowercase option letters only affect the URLs that immediately follow them.
If you give an option in caps, it will be the default option for all URLs that follow it.
If you specify the outfile as '-', the file will be printed to standard output as it downloads.
You can have as many URLs and outfiles as you want.
You can specify a username and password for ftp or http authentication.
The format is: ftp://username:password@host/
If you don't specify a password, you will be prompted for one.
snarf checks the SNARF_PROXY, FTP_PROXY, GOPHER_PROXY, HTTP_PROXY, and PROXY environment variables.
-a Force active FTP (default is passive).
-m Spoof MSIE user-agent string.
-n Ignore '-r' and transfer file in its entirety.
-p Force printing of progress bars (overrides -q).
-q Don't print progress bars (compiled default is on).
-r Resume downloading a partially transferred file.
-v Verbose output.
-z Spoof Navigator user-agent string.

Command: ssh
Location: /sbin
Type: Binary
Usage: ssh [options] [user@]host
Purpose: Secure shell client.
-i FILE Selects the file from which the identity (private key) for RSA authentication is read (multiple allowed).
-L LPORT:RHOST:RPORT Local port forwarding.
-l USER Log in as USER on the remote machine.
-p PORT Connect on port PORT.
-R LPORT:RHOST:RPORT Remote port forwarding.
-t Allocate a pty.
-T Don't allocate a pty.
-y Accept remote host keys, if unknown.

Command: star
Location: /bin
Type: Script
Usage: OUTPUT ¦ star
Purpose: Extracts a tar archive from the OUTPUT.
Option(s): None.

Command: stty
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: stty [-a¦g] [-F DEVICE] [SETTING]...
Purpose: Change and print terminal line settings.

Without arguments, prints baud rate, line discipline, and deviations from stty sane.
-a Print all current settings in human-readable form.
-F DEVICE Open device instead of stdin.
-g Print in stty-readable form.

Command: swapoff
Location: /sbin
Type: Binary
Usage: swapoff block-device
Purpose: Stop swapping virtual memory pages on the given device.
Option(s): None.

Command: swapon
Location: /sbin
Type: Binary
Usage: swapon block-device
Purpose: Swap virtual memory pages on the given device.
Option(s): None.

Command: sync
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: sync
Purpose: Write all buffered filesystem blocks to disk.
Option(s): None.

Command: synctime
Location: /sbin
Type: Script
Usage: synctime
Purpose: Synchronize the time with the predefined time server.
Option(s): None.

Command: sysedit
Location: /bin
Type: Script
Usage: sysedit
Purpose: Edits the primary configuration file and copies it afterwards so that changes will survive a reboot.
Option(s): None.

Command: sysinfo
Location: /bin
Type: Script
Usage: sysinfo
Purpose: Outputs primary system information.
Option(s): None.

Command: syslogd
Location: /sbin
Type: Binary
Usage: syslogd [-a SOCKET] [-d] [-f CONFIG_FILE] [-h] [-l HOSTLIST] [-m INTERVAL] [-n] [-p SOCKET] [-r] [-s DOMAINLIST] [-v]
Purpose: Linux system logging utilities.
-a SOCKET Using this argument you can specify additional sockets from that syslogd has to listen to. This is needed if you're going to let some daemon run within a chroot() environment. You can use up to 19 additional sockets.
-d Turns on debug mode. Using this the daemon will not proceed a fork(2) to set itself in the background, but instead will stay in the foreground and write much debug information on the current tty.
-f CONFIG_FILE Specify an alternative configuration file instead of /etc/syslog.conf, which is the default.
-h Specify a hostname that should be logged only with its simple hostname and not the FQDN. Multiple hosts may be specified using the colon (":") separator.
-l HOSTLIST Specify a hostname that should be logged only with its simple hostname and not the FQDN. Multiple hosts may be specified using the colon (":") separator.
-m INTERVAL The syslogd logs a mark timestamp regularly. The default interval between two -- MARK -- lines is 20 minutes. This can be changed with this option. Setting the interval to zero turns it off entirely.
-n Avoid auto-backgrounding. This is needed especially if the syslogd is started and controlled by init(8).
-p SOCKET You can specify an alternative unix domain socket instead of /dev/log.
-r This option will enable the facility to receive message from the network using an internet domain socket with the syslog service (see services(5)). The default is to not receive any messages from the network.
-s DOMAINLIST Specify a domainname that should be stripped off before logging. Multiple domains may be specified using the colon (":") separator. Remember that the first match is used, not the best.
-v Print version and exit.

Command: tar
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: tar -[cxtvO] [-f TARFILE] [-C DIR] [FILE(s)] ...
Purpose: Create, extract, or list files from a tar file.
-c Create tar file.
-C DIR Change to directory DIR before operation.
-f TARFILE Name of TARFILE or "-" for stdin.
-O Extract to stdout.
-t List contents of tar file.
-x Extract files from tar file.

Command: tclock
Location: /bin
Type: Script
Usage: tclock [24]
Purpose: Screen saver.

Use CRTL+c to terminate.
24 Displays the output in 24 hour format (default is 12 hour).

Command: telnet
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: telnet HOST [PORT]
Purpose: Telnet is used to establish interactive communication with another computer over a network using the TELNET protocol.
Option(s): None.

Command: thttpd
Location: /sbin
Type: Binary
Usage: thttpd [-C CONFIGFILE] [-p PORT] [-d DIR] [-r¦-nor] [-dd DATA_DIR] [-s¦-nos] [-v¦-nov] [-g¦-nog] [-u USER] [-c CGIPAT] [-t THROTTLES] [-h HOST] [-l LOGFILE] [-i PIDFILE] [-T CHARSET] [-P P3P] [-M MAXAGE] [-V] [-D]
Purpose: Tiny HTTP Daemon - a simple, small, fast, and secure HTTP server.
-c CGIPAT Specifies a wildcard pattern for CGI programs.
-C CONFIGFILE Specifies a config-file to read.
-D Debug mode. Prevents thttpd from making itself a background daemon.
-d DIR Specifies a directory to chdir() to at startup.
-dd DATA_DIR Specifies a directory to chdir() to after chrooting.
-g ¦ -nog DO/DON'T use a global passwd file.
-h HOST Specifies a hostname to bind to, for multihoming.
-I PIDFILE Specifies a file to write the process-id to. If no file is specified, no process-id is written.
-l LOGFILE Specifies a file for logging. If no -l argument is specified, thttpd logs via syslog(). If "-l /dev/null" is specified, thttpd doesn't log at all.
-M MAXAGE Specifies the number of seconds to be used in a "Cache-Control: max-age" header to be returned with all responses. An equivalent "Expires" header is also generated.
-P P3P Specifies a P3P server privacy header to be returned with all responses. See for details.
-p PORT Specifies an alternate port number to listen on. The default is 80.
-r ¦ -nor DO/DON'T a chroot() at initialization time, restricting file access to the program's current directory.
-s ¦ -nos DO/DON'T do explicit symbolic link checking.
-T CHARSET Specifies the character set to use with text MIME types. The default is iso-8859-1.
-t THROTTLES Specifies a file of throttle settings.
-u USER Specifies what user to switch to after initialization when started as root. The default is "nobody".
-V Show version.
-v ¦ -nov DO/DON'T do el-cheapo virtual hosting.

Command: tleds
Location: /sbin
Type: Binary
Usage: tleds [-bchkqv] [-d DELAY] <INTERFACE>
Purpose: Flash the keyboard LEDs in conjunction with inbound and outbound packets from the defined <INTERFACE>.

WARNING: This binary causes severe system problems if a keyboard is not connected and it should also NOT be enabled on a high speed connection.
-b Don't go to the background.
-c Fix the Caps Lock LED in VTs. Only for EUID root.
-d DELAY Set update delay. DELAY must be between 1 and 10000 (milliseconds)
-h Help.
-k Kill (old) (x)tleds running.
-q Quiet mode.
-v Display version.

Command: todos
Location: /bin
Type: Script
Usage: todos < Linux.file > Dos.file
Purpose: Converts files that are in Linux format to Dos format files.
Option(s): None.

Command: top
Location: /sbin
Type: Binary
Usage: top [-d DELAY]
Purpose: Provides a view of processor activity in real time.
This utility reads the status for all processes in /proc each DELAY and shows the status for however many processes will fit on the screen.
This utility will not show processes that are started after program startup, but it will show the EXIT status for and PIDs that exit while it is running.
-d DELAY Delay in seconds between screen updates (default: 5 seconds).

Command: touch
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: touch file [file ...]
Purpose: Update the last-modified date on the given file[s].
Option(s): None.

Command: traceroute
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: traceroute [-dnrv] [-m MAX_TTL] [-p PORT#] [-q NQUERIES] [-s SRC_ADDR] [-t TOS] [-w WAIT] HOST [data size]
Purpose: Trace the route ip packets follow going to "HOST"
-d Set SO_DEBUG options to socket.
-m MAX_TTL Set maximum Time-To-Live to MAX_TTL.
-n Print hop addresses numerically rather than symbolically.
-p PORT# Set the base UDP port number used in probes (default is 33434).
-q NQUERIES Set the number of probes per "TTL" to NQUERIES (default is 3).
-s SRC_ADDR Use SRC_ADDR as the source IP address.
-t TOS Set the type-of-service in probe packets to the following value (default 0).
-v Verbose output.
-w WAIT Set the time (in seconds) to wait for a response to a probe (default is 3).

Command: true
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: true
Purpose: Returns a true status for usage by shell scripts.
Option(s): None.

Command: tsaver
Location: /sbin
Type: Binary
Usage: tsaver DELAY PROGRAM
tsaver [-i¦x]
Purpose: Used by the system to monitor the keyboard for activity and activate a text screen saver when the configured delay in seconds has expired.
-i Invoke screen saver immediately.
-x Terminate program.

Command: tty
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: tty [OPTION]
Purpose: Prints the file name of the connected console.
--help Display help.
--version Display version.
Print nothing, only return an exit status.

Command: udosctl
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: udosctl command argument
Purpose: Control a umsdos file system for file and directory visibility.

udosctl is part of the umsdos file system.
udosctl ls directory_path
udosctl create file_name
udosctl mkdir directory_name
udosctl rm file_path
udosctl rmdir directory_path
udosctl uls directory_path
udosctl urm file_path
udosctl urmdir directory_path
udosctl stat file_path
udosctl version
Option(s): None.

Command: umount
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: umount [device¦dir]
Purpose: Unmounts a device.
Option(s): None.

Command: umssetup
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: umssetup [ options ] DIR_PATH
Purpose: Set the default permissions and owner of files in DOS directories.
UMSDOS directories are not affected.

DIR_PATH is normally a mount point.
Note that the change applies to all DOS directories (and files therein) of the same partition as DIR_PATH.
This utility is normally used on the root partition at boot time, since it is not possible to pass mount options. When mounting other umsdos partitions, you can use all msdos options (see mount(8)) such as uid=,gid=,umask=.

*** This utility may be used at any time but its effect may be delayed because of the some kernel internal caching (inode). It is best to use it immediately after the mount. If you need to play often with permissions and owner, use umssync to promote directory to full Unix capabilities.
-g GROUP Group ID for entry creation.
-m MODE Permission bits, in octal (Sets the default mode, not the umask).
-u USER User ID for entry creation.

Command: umssync
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: umssync [options] dir_path [[options] dir_path ... ]
Purpose: Syncronize a UMSDOS file system so that files added under DOS are shown in the UMSDOS file system.

Warning: This is a dangerous command when used on a systems that have long file names as it will rename the files into a broken DOS 8.3 format. It is better in most cases to use "udosctl".
-c Conditional mode: sync a directory only if it contains a '--linux-.---' file.
-dmode Directory creation mode.
-fmode File creation mode.
-ggroup Group ID for entry creation.
-i+ Inherit from parent.
-i- Do not inherit ownership from parent directory.
-rN Recurse N levels of subdirectory.
-RN Allow recursion through N directories that do not contain a '--linux-.---' file.
-uuser User ID for entry creation.
-v+ Verbose operation.
-v- Silent operation.

Command: uname
Location: /bin
Type: Script
Usage: uname
Purpose: Displays the current kernel information.
Option(s): None.

Command: update
Location: /sbin
Type: Binary
Usage: update [OPTIONS]
Purpose: Periodically flushes filesystem buffers.
-f SECS Flush some buffers this often (default 5).
-S Force use of sync(2) instead of flushing.
-s SECS Call sync this often (default 30).

Command: uptime
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: uptime
Purpose: Display the time since the last boot.
Option(s): None.

Command: useradd
Location: /bin
Type: Script
Usage: useradd [user-name]
Purpose: Add a user to the system.
Option(s): None.

Command: userdel
Location: /bin
Type: Script
Usage: userdel [user-name]
Purpose: Remove an existing system user.
Option(s): None.

Command: useredit
Location: /bin
Type: Script
Usage: useredit [user-name]
Purpose: Edit an existing system user.
Option(s): None.

Command: userlist
Location: /bin
Type: Script
Usage: userlist
Purpose: Display all system users.
Option(s): None.

Command: usleep
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: usleep N
Purpose: Pause for N microseconds.
Option(s): None.

Command: utils
Location: /bin
Type: Script
Usage: None.
Purpose: This is the primary multifunction script for the /bin directory.
Option(s): None.

Command: wc
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: wc [OPTION]... [FILE]...
Purpose: Print line, word, and byte counts for each FILE, and a total line if more than one FILE is specified. With no FILE, read standard input.
-c Print the byte counts.
-l Print the newline counts.
-L Print the length of the longest line.
-w Print the word counts.

Command: which
Location: /bin
Type: Script
Usage: which COMMAND
Purpose: List the full pathname of the file that would be executed if COMMAND had been run.
Option(s): None.

Command: zcat
Location: /bin
Type: Binary
Usage: zcat FILE
Purpose: Uncompress to stdout.
Option(s): None.






Project Coordinator / Lead Developer

Sincere appreciation and thanks goes out to Douglas "Slowpoke" Rees
for the time and effort invested in the Commands Database design
and maintenance, and for validating all commands
and associated arguments.

Commands DB Design & Maintenance
Douglas "Slowpoke" Rees

Commands Modulator Design
Roger "dRB" Bedard

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Wed, 5 Dec 2007 16:03:08 -0800
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